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  2. About the Chairman

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  4. Exhausting Glacial Lakes of HKH before they explode
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  8. Nature Strikes Back... Wake up call

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  10. Climate change led to catastrophe
    Article by Chairman APMRaza Khan
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  11. Before Its Too Late

    Author: Muhammad Raza Khan (Chairman APM)

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  12. Iceland Volcanic Eruption

    By Muhammad Raza Khan

    Chairman APM...

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  14. Interview with The Chairman
    Conducted by:Muhammad Waseem AbbasiVia:TeleconferenceDate:28 May 2010Time:3pm (UK); 8pm (PK)

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Iceland Volcanic Eruption

By Muhammad Raza Khan

Chairman APM

(May-June 2010)

The history of volcanic eruption in The Iceland is an old and a usual phenomenon. Among such eruptions,  the Laki Volcano lava activity in 1783 had been significant as it lasted for more than eight months and affected the global climate for the years to come. According to an associated press report, it costed for half of the total livestock and one third of the population loss during the resulting famine.

The Mid Atlantic Ridge is only visible in the Iceland that is the homeland of active volcanoes. Eruptions occur about every 5-10 years. Iceland has 35 volcanoes that have erupted in the last 10,000 years. On average, a volcano erupts about every 5 years and here one third of worldwide lava had been ejected within 500 years . Eleven volcanoes have erupted between 1900 and 1998: Krafla, Askja, Grimsvotn, Loki-Fogrufjoll, Bardarbunga, Kverkfjoll, Esjufjoll, Hekla, Katla, Surtsey, and Heimaey. Most of the eruptions were from fissures or shield volcanoes and involve the effusion of basaltic lava. The 1783 eruption at Laki was the largest single historic eruption of basaltic lava (12 cubic km). Recent eruptions include the 1974-1984 eruption at Krafla, a brief eruption at Hekla in 1991 and again on February 26 2000 and three eruptions at Grimsvotn, in 1996, 1998 and 2004.

The Mid  April Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced ay-yah-FYAH-plah-yer-kuh-duhl) has a little hazardous impact as compared to the Laki Eruption tectonically. But environmentally, this could be an unfortunate feedback of the mother Nature to the global warming. During 80's of the last century, the scientists put forward a theory of an accelerated magma activity beneath the earth resulting in frequent lava eruptions specifically around the Greenland  and generally for the Upper Hemisphere. They all were agreed upon the argument that increasing global average temperatures would result in excessive snow over the Greenland Glaciers causing glacier exceeding and it would reciprocally put enormous pressure on the tectonic plates and would compel magma to become lava for the world. But the environmental picture of the heated Greenland is quite different. It is losing its glacier mass on an alarming rate. All the climatologists and activists are much much worried to this receding as it can even affect the ocean conveyor belt as well.

In July 1991, I presented a counter theory regarding accelerated tectonic activity in coming decades based on the two major climate facts,

  1. Accelerated Earth Wobbling
  2. Glacier Receding Across the World.

A part of the theory was published on page 14,15 & 16 in the Environmental Bulletin of Govt. College Gujranwala Pakistan named ‘Hum Aur Hamara Mahol’ means ‘we and our environment’ as given below

“It is written in News from the World of Science under the heading of “As the World Wobbles” that;

Scientists have long known that the earth wobbles on its axis over periods of a year or more. Now researchers have found rapid wobbles as short as two weeks. The main cause appears to be weather changes. ------------------------ Watching the motion of the poles over the course of several years, the scientists discovered that the earth wobbles as much as 24 inches in as little as two week.”

We know that tectonic plates1 of the earth are under enormous pressure and still moving against, side by side and beneath each other and faults do appear on the surface of the earth. Also magma beneath these tectonic plates keeps in search of loose strata to erupt. All these plates’ tectonic activities result in the form of big and small earth quakes. The oceanic currents2 and ocean conveyer belt’s motion are also being affected by the global warming. Therefore, it is apprehended that global climate change is directly or indirectly affecting global thermohaline3 and hydro mass distribution in the world oceans and strengthening earth wobbling. On the other hand increasing earth wobbling may be contributing to the accelerated earth tectonics. Hence, the world would have to face frequent earth quakes in coming decades.

The second part of my theory that relates the worldwide glacier receding4 process and the increased frequency of earth quakes. The details of the theory has been published in “The Kaleidoscopic Environment” on July 1997 is as follows;

“-------, I apprehend that during next centuries, reduction in glacier mass would prompt the earth quakes in Asia and beyond. As the crust of sub-continent is still pushing continental plate in north and North West. It is said that peaks of these ranges are rising because of this enormous pressure build up. The pressure produced by these glaciers on the mountains would be decreased because of over-melting.”

In my opinion, the forest cover on the Himalayas is an additional atmospheric pressure as trees deposit atmospheric carbon within them. Furthermore atmospheric moisture retains as glaciers on these mountains so rising mountains upwards have to face this external and downwards pressure as well. The 80% loss of Himalayan forest cover and about 40%-45% reduction in glacier mass, both are shifting the equilibrium in upward direction.

The Kaleidoscopic Environment further explains

“------ this may cause rocks to move upward and the sub-continental plate (Indian Plate)5 towards Ancient Asian plate (Eurasian Plate)6more rapidly”.

1-part of the Earth's crust that moves very slowly which causes changes in the positions of the continents.


The tectonic plates are the large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another on the outer surface of the earth.


2-(Regular movement of ocean water from one region of the ocean to another; for example, the North Pacific Gyre.


(cold water sinks and flows towards equator where it warms and rises. Transports heat in the biosphere

3-(The term thermohaline circulation (THC) refers to the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes…)


4-if ablation rate of ice is grater than accumulation rate, the glacier shrinks and is called that Glacier is in receding mode.

4.a- Occurs where more glacial ice is lost by melting and evaporation each year than is replaced by the build up of snow. geodiversity/englands/glossary/default.aspx

4.b-accumulative - increasing ice by successive addition; "the benefits are cumulative"; "the eventual accumulative effect of these substances"


5-The India or Indian Plate is a tectonic plate that was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland from which it split off, eventually becoming a major plate. About 50 to 55 million years ago, it fused with the adjacent Australian Plate. ...

6-The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East ...



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